Montage Astronomical Image Mosaic Engine

Montage is an open-source astronomical image mosaic engine. This BSD-licensed astronomy software is developed by the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

To run this test with the Phoronix Test Suite, the basic command is: phoronix-test-suite benchmark montage.

Test Created

8 July 2020

Test Maintainer

Michael Larabel 

Test Type


Average Install Time

2 Minutes, 5 Seconds

Average Run Time

15 Minutes, 59 Seconds

Test Dependencies

C/C++ Compiler Toolchain


10k+ Downloads

Supported Platforms

Public Result Uploads *Reported Installs **Reported Test Completions **Test Profile Page Views ***OpenBenchmarking.orgEventsMontage Astronomical Image Mosaic Engine Popularity Statisticspts/montage2020.072020.082020.092020.102020.112020.122021.012021.022021.032021.042021.052021.062021.072021.082021.092021.102021.112021.122022.012022.022022.032022.042022.052022.062022.072022.082022.092022.102022.112022.122023.012023.022023.032023.042023.052023.062023.072023.082023.092023.102023.115001000150020002500
* Uploading of benchmark result data to is always optional (opt-in) via the Phoronix Test Suite for users wishing to share their results publicly.
** Data based on those opting to upload their test results to and users enabling the opt-in anonymous statistics reporting while running benchmarks from an Internet-connected platform.
*** Test profile page view reporting began March 2021.
Data updated weekly as of 23 November 2023.

Revision History

pts/montage-1.0.0   [View Source]   Wed, 08 Jul 2020 11:35:41 GMT
Initial commit of Montage.

Suites Using This Test


Creator Workloads

Performance Metrics

Analyze Test Configuration:

Montage Astronomical Image Mosaic Engine 6.0

Mosaic of M17, K band, 1.5 deg x 1.5 deg metrics for this test profile configuration based on 587 public results since 8 July 2020 with the latest data as of 17 November 2023.

Below is an overview of the generalized performance for components where there is sufficient statistically significant data based upon user-uploaded results. It is important to keep in mind particularly in the Linux/open-source space there can be vastly different OS configurations, with this overview intended to offer just general guidance as to the performance expectations.

Percentile Rank
# Compatible Public Results
Seconds (Average)
66 +/- 1
> 74
84 +/- 9
84 +/- 1
86 +/- 1
> 96
96 +/- 1
106 +/- 1
117 +/- 1
143 +/- 1
149 +/- 6
155 +/- 1
OpenBenchmarking.orgDistribution Of Public Results - Mosaic of M17, K band, 1.5 deg x 1.5 deg587 Results Range From 40 To 1098 Seconds4073106139172205238271304337370403436469502535568601634667700733766799832865898931964997103010631096112980160240320400

Based on data, the selected test / test configuration (Montage Astronomical Image Mosaic Engine 6.0 - Mosaic of M17, K band, 1.5 deg x 1.5 deg) has an average run-time of 5 minutes. By default this test profile is set to run at least 3 times but may increase if the standard deviation exceeds pre-defined defaults or other calculations deem additional runs necessary for greater statistical accuracy of the result.

OpenBenchmarking.orgMinutesTime Required To Complete BenchmarkMosaic of M17, K band, 1.5 deg x 1.5 degRun-Time612182430Min: 2 / Avg: 4.82 / Max: 25

Based on public results, the selected test / test configuration has an average standard deviation of 0.2%.

OpenBenchmarking.orgPercent, Fewer Is BetterAverage Deviation Between RunsMosaic of M17, K band, 1.5 deg x 1.5 degDeviation246810Min: 0 / Avg: 0.15 / Max: 2

Does It Scale Well With Increasing Cores?

No, based on the automated analysis of the collected public benchmark data, this test / test settings does not generally scale well with increasing CPU core counts. Data based on publicly available results for this test / test settings, separated by vendor, result divided by the reference CPU clock speed, grouped by matching physical CPU core count, and normalized against the smallest core count tested from each vendor for each CPU having a sufficient number of test samples and statistically significant data.

AMDIntelOpenBenchmarking.orgRelative Core Scaling To BaseMontage Astronomical Image Mosaic Engine CPU Core ScalingMosaic of M17, K band, 1.5 deg x 1.5 deg24681216243248641.06252.1253.18754.255.3125

Tested CPU Architectures

This benchmark has been successfully tested on the below mentioned architectures. The CPU architectures listed is where successful result uploads occurred, namely for helping to determine if a given test is compatible with various alternative CPU architectures.

CPU Architecture
Kernel Identifier
Verified On
Intel / AMD x86 64-bit
(Many Processors)
Intel / AMD x86 32-bit
(Many Processors)
ARMv7 32-bit
ARMv7 Cortex-A72 4-Core

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